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NOTE: This is an unformatted excerpt from our online fire protection training library.

Hydraulic Calculations

Hydraulic Calculations

How they work...

Hydraulic calculations are based on the occupancy or occupancies of the space where sprinklers are installed or will be installed.  The proper assignment of the sprinkler density and area of application is based on the proper determination of the occupancy.  The designer picks appropriate density and application area and then has to determine the hydraulically most remote areaIn a pipe schedule system, or a system that has piping that is terminated in branch lines and cross or feed mains, the most hydraulically remote area is typically the area of the building furthest away from the sprinkler riser. However, if the system is looped or gridded, this will not be the case. Multiple paths for the water to flow through exist in the grid, and this moves the most remote area away from the corners of the building, toward the center. The designer will rely on the hydraulics computer program to determine the most hydraulically remote area, as long hand calculations, although not impossible, are extremely difficult. of the space to be protected.  All of the sprinklers in the most hydraulically remote area Although the density/area method does not apply to all system designs, an area of protection, and a required flow in that area, is the basis for all designs. For example, if it is an ESFR system, it will typically require the design of twelve (12) sprinklers in the most remote area of the building. If each sprinkler is spaced at 100 sq. ft. per head, the area becomes 1,200 sq. ft. In essence, how the designer arrives at an area and flow for a system is a function of the type of system he or she chooses. But, the bottom line is this...the water has to be distributed to the fire, and an assumption is made as to how big the area of the fire will be. will be calculated to determine the flow and pressure required to meet the density. 

In order for the sprinkler system to deliver the proper density to all of the sprinklers in the most hydraulically remote area, the first sprinkler, or the one that is hydraulically most remote has to meet the criteria for pressure and flow for the area that that sprinkler protects.  The calculation for the flow and pressure from the first, and then all other, sprinklers is a simple equation:  Q (flow at the nozzle or sprinkler) = k (k-factor of the nozzle or sprinkler) multiplied by the square root of p (pressure at the flowing nozzle or sprinkler).



NOTE: This is an unformatted excerpt from our online fire protection training library.

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