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NOTE: This is an unformatted excerpt from our online fire protection training library.

Hydraulic Calculations

Hydraulic Design

Application

Sprinklers in a building can be installed in any fashion that a designer choosesThe choice of how to design a sprinkler system in a building is at the discretion of the designer. This doesn't mean that the owner or the AHJ has no say, but the designer is expected to know the best, most effective method of providing the required protection..  Sprinkler systems installed today are typically hydraulically designed, but there are still allowances for pipe schedule systemsThese allowances come with restrictions...these will be discussed in other parts of this sprinkler system program, and, to some extent, in this course. in NFPA 13.  Regardless of how a designer chooses to develop the scheme for the installation, there are some very basic rules that apply.
For hydraulically designed systems in buildings with two or more adjacent hazardsThis applies to an open area, but if there is a barrier that prevents the spread of heat to the adjacent area, then this doesn't apply. If a barrier exists, then each area would be treated individually., the design area has to extend at least fifteen (15) feet beyond the area that creates the largest hazard.   Regardless of the size of the area of application, the discharge density can't be less than that indicated for a 1,500 sq. ft area of application for light and ordinary hazard occupancies, and 2,500 sq. ft for extra hazard occupancies. 
The minimum water supplyNFPA 13 design criteria anticipates that fire departments or occupants will be putting water on the fire at the same time sprinklers are operating. required is obtained by adding the hose stream requirements to the demand for the sprinkler system. The minimum water supply has to be available for the entire duration of the fire. If there are multiple hazards classifications under the same sprinkler system, the hose stream allowance and water supply duration has to be in accordance with one of the following: it has to be based on the highest hazard classification within the system protection area, or each individual hazard has to be calculated individually, or if the higher classification lies within a single room of less than 400 sq. ft., the water supply requirements for the remainder of the space can be applied.

NOTE: This is an unformatted excerpt from our online fire protection training library.

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